By the end of 2007, there had been 53,600 Km of expressways in Chinese mainland, making China second only to the United States in terms of the length of expressways across the world. There are 1.18 million Km of highways in China including 68 national highways and more htan 1,600 provincial highways. The nation is going full steam ahead in the construction of expressways and first- and second-grade highroads. Construction of expressways and first and second class highways for the nation¡¯s tourism industry is in high swing. Several dozen expressways pivoted on such major cities as Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Chengde, Taiyuan and Xi¡¯an have been completed and opened to traffic. Sections of the Lianyungang- Alata (Xinjiang) Expressway run across the Chinese continent from east to west. And the Beijing- Hong Kong- Macao Expressway cuts through the country from south to north. Impressive improvement had been achieved in China¡¯s highway transportation by the end of the 20th century.
Provincial capital cities are highway passenger transport centers that operate regular bus services to and from various prefectures, cities, counties, and towns in their respective provinces and autonomous regions. The numbers of tourist buses in large and medium sized cities and sleeper buses that run across provincial boundaries are on the increase. Expressway transport in China is characterized by top-notch and speedy services and simplified procedures, and express buses are dispatched in a steam-lined fashion to guarantee prompt arrivals. Most vehicles running along there expressways are imported or joint venture products that are well equipped and designed and have durable functions. Service in there buses is on a par with airline service, and they run at an average speed of 100 Km per hour.
Foreigners may also travel in China by their own means of transport, such as bicycles, motorcycles, automobiles, ships and airplanes, but they must pass the ratification of relevant authorities before entering China. One thing worthy of notice is that driver licenses issued by foreign countries are not applicable in China. if they intend to drive their own motor vehicles that are temporarily taken into China, travelers who hold foreign driver licenses are required to apply for a temporary driver licenses at transport administrative divisions of municipal-level? public security departments in the cities where they enter China or start the journey. Those who want to drive motor vehicles rented in China shall apply for temporary driver licenses at transport administrative divisions of municipal-level public security departments in the cities where the car renting company is located.
The total mileage of railways opens to traffic in China amounts to 70,000 Km, which form an extensive network with Beijing as the hub.
Chinese railway service boasts domestic and international operations. Chinese passenger trains are categorized and number into: CRH (D1-D998), Nonstop Express Passenger Trains (Z1-Z998), Express Passenger Trains (T1-T998,) Fast Passenger Trains (K1-K998, N1-N998), Ordinary Passenger Trains (1001-8998), and Temporary Passenger Trains (L1-L998, A1-A998).
Quassi-high speed trains run mainly from Guangzhou to Kowloon and From Guangzhou to Shenzhen.
Same-day fast trains shuttle between major cities.
Tourist trains make the journey pleasant for those bound for major tourist cities. The sleeping carriages running on China¡¯s railways are partitioned into compartments each containing four cushioned berths arranged in upper and lower berths.
International Railway through Transport
International railway through transport is available on the following routes:
Beijing- Ulan Bator- Moscow; Beijing- Manzhouli- Moscow;
Beijing- Pyongyang; Urumqi- Alma Ata;
Beijing- Hanol; Beijing- Ulan Bator;
Hohhot- Ulan Bator;
Harbin/ Suifenhe- Khabarovsk (Boli), Vladivostok.
On these routes express passenger trains run in both directions. Just to remind European passengers: It takes six to seven days for an express train to reach Beijing from Moscow by way of Ulan Bator or Manzhouli.
China¡¯s vast maritime territory encompasses the Bohai, Yellow and East China Sea in the east and the South China Sea in the south. While the Bohai Sea nestles in the arms of the mainland, the Yellow, East China and South China Seas are linked with the Pacific Ocean. The country¡¯s long and winding coastline is clustered with harbors, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Tantai, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Dalian, Beihai, and Hong Kong. All these harbors are set in beautiful surroundings, and operate global cruises which bring the travelers to the world¡¯s famous seaboards cities.
To date, China has constructed five well-equipped international cruise ports, including Shanghai International Passenger Center, Xiamen International Passenger Center and Sanya Phoenix Island International Passenger Center, Tianjin Port cruise Wharf, and Shenzhen Cruise Port. In addition, Dalian International Cruise Wharf is in the phase of design. So far, a total of 16 coastal cities, including Shanghai, Ningbo, Tianjin, Dalian, Qingdao, Guangzhou, Xiamen, Sanya and Haikou have received international luxury cruises. Consecutively, Royal Caribbean Legend of the Seas cruise ship, Costa Allegra cruise ship, and Royal Caribbean Rhapsody of the Seas cruise ship have opened international tour routes in Shanghai. Today, international cruise tours flourish in China. It is expected that taking cruise ships to tour China will become a comfortable, fashionable, and luxury way of travel China.
Domestic Ocean Line
China¡¯s port cities are lined to each other by a labyrinth of maritime shipping lines. The most important of these are the Shanghai- Dalian, Dalian- Yianjin, Dalian- Yantai, Shanghai- Qingdao, Shanghai- Guangzhou, Beihai- Guangzhou, Shenzhen- Zhuhai, and Zhuhai- Hong Kong.
Sailing along these well arranged domestic maritime shipping lines are many luxury cruises and passenger liners.
The continent of China is crisscrossed by rivers 226,800 Km in aggregate length and 136,000 Km of there have been opened up for inland navigation.
Better-Known Inland Waterways