in the western part of China's central Henan
is one of china's seven ancient capitals. Today it's
hard to imagine that Luoyang was once the center of
the Chinese universe, the Eastern Capital of the great
Tang dynasty and home to over 1,300 Buddhist temples.
The city endured a sacking in the l2th century by Juchen
invaders from which it never quite recovered. For centuries
the city languished with only memories of greatness,
its population dwindling to a mere 20,000 inhabitants
by the l920s.
The greater Luoyang area has been a sacred
ground since the late Neolithic period. This area at
the intersection of the Luo and Yi rivers, called the
Waste of Xia, was considered to be the geographical
center of China. Because of this sacred aspect, several
cites, all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang",
have been built there. In 2070 BC, King Tai Kang of
Xia Dynasty moved the Xia capital to the intersection
of Luo river and Yi River and named the city Zhenxun.
In 1600 BC, King Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final
king of Xia dynasty, and built Western Bo, a new capital
on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located
in Luoyang Prefecture.
In 1136 BC a settlement named Chengzhou was constructed
by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured
Shang nobility. The Duke also moved the Nine Tripod
Cauldrons to Chengzhou from the Zhou capital at Haojing.
A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng was built 15
km west of Chengzhou. It became the capital of the Eastern
Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC. The Easten Zhou capital was
moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC. Later, the Han dynasty
capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. The
ruins of Chengzhou are still visible today 2 kilometres
east of the White Horse Temple area. Modern Luoyang
is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still
visible today at Wangcheng Park. In AD 25, Luoyang became
the capital of Eastern Han Dynasty. For several centuries,
Luoyang was the focal point of China.
The late second century saw China decline
into anarchy. The decline was accelerated by the rebellion
by the Yellow Turbans. This was followed by a state
of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum
of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment
of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire.
In AD 190, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered
his soldiers to ransack, pillage and raze the city as
he retreated from the coalition set up against him by
regional lords from across China. The court was subsequently
moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an.
Following a period of disorder. Luoyang was restored
to prominence when Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty declared
it his capital in AD 220. The Jin Dynasty, successor
to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was
overrun by invaders and forccd to move its capital to
Jiankang (modern day Nanjing). Luoyang was nearly totally
destroyed. In AD 493 the Northern Wei Dynasty moved
its capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction
of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes.
During the Tang Dynasty, Luoyang was the
"Eastern Capital" and at its height had a
population of around one million, second only to Chang'an,
the 'Western Capital", and the largest city in
the world. During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang
was the capital of the Later Tang. After that period,
Luoyang no longer served as capital of any subsequent
China Great Travel offers customized Luoyang
tours which including private Luoyang tour packages
and group big bus day trips. The following tours are
for your reference. There are many other tour attractions
you can choose. We are always ready to tailor make a
private and personal Luoyang tour package for you which
can have more tourist destinations included: Beijing,
Kaifeng, Shanghai, Hohot, Tianjin, Pingyao or Yangtse
River. Just send us an email to get our travel expert
help planning your China tour to Luoyang.
China Tour Packages
Inclusive Of Visiting Luoyang